Jeopardy Review Game: TEST FRIDAY/MONDAY
| || |
Expansion Preview: (Label it Page 16)
2. What might the dates on the map represent?
3. Which coast (east or west) featured the original 13 states?
4. In which direction did the U.S. expand?
5. What country ‘ceded’ (gave up) Florida AND in what year did it become a state?
6. Which area of land was the biggest addition to the United States AND in what year did that occur?
7. Which states were ‘ceded’ (given up) by Mexico AND in what year?
8. Which two states were added last to the United States AND in what year did that occur?
9. What would be a good title for this map?
10. What might be some problems that Americans faced when expanding the country? (predict using prior knowledge and information on the map)
Expansion Preview Continued : (back of Page 16)
The painting to the right is called American Progress. It is a visual representation of the United States' westward expansion. Examine the painting with your table partners. Then discuss the questions below on the symbolism found in the painting:
When we're done discussing as a class, answer the questions in complete sentences on your paper.
Page 17: The Louisiana Purchase (read and answer the questions below)
At the southern end of the Mississippi River was the city of New Orleans. Though this city was controlled by the French, it was extremely important to Americans because the ships that traveled down the Mississippi River had to pass through the port of New Orleans to reach the Gulf of Mexico and onward to the Atlantic Ocean.
For this reason, President Jefferson sent two advisers to France to try to negotiate the purchase of the city of New Orleans. When the advisers arrived, they discovered that France was in need of money, and thus they would indeed sell New Orleans...but only if the U.S. agreed to buy the entire Louisiana Territory along with it.
Jefferson's advisers didn't have time to relay the offer back to the President and wait for a response, so they instead decided on their own to strike a deal. Of course President Jefferson didn't mind because with one enormous purchase, the United States was now nearly double the size, and all for the low, low price of $15 million.
| || |
(In today's dollars, that would be about $283 million. That may sound like a lot, but keep in mind that A) they bought what is now over 1/3 of the continental United States, and B) the U.S. currently spends nearly $4 trillion every year. It was an absolute bargain.)
Even before the purchase was made, Jefferson was planning on sending out an expedition to explore the western territories, so of course once he found out that the U.S. now owned a large part of it, he excitedly sent Lewis & Clark on their way.
The Lewis and Clark QR Expedition (Page 17 continued)
What you had to complete for full credit is below:
3. The Elements
4. Friend or Foe?
5. Summary of the importance of Lewis and Clark's journey
The Adams-Onis Treaty (Page 18)
Read and answer the questions below:
With Jackson invading Florida, the situation had clearly gotten out of hand, and neither side wanted to go to war. Still, President Monroe decided to send his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams with a strong message for Spain: "Govern Florida properly, or get out!"
Spain decided that Florida was more trouble than it was worth and so they got out. In a deal that is known as the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain would give Florida over to the United States. In exchange, the U.S. would give Spain $5 million dollars and agree to honor Spain’s longtime claim to Texas.
Answer the following questions on the acquisition of Florida:
The Indian Removal Act (Page 19)
Nowadays, you'll find Andrew Jackson's face on a twenty dollar bill because of this important contribution the development of American Democracy, but you'll also find few people who find his legacy tainted due to his brutal policies toward Native Americans.
THE YEAR IS 1830. There is a bill before the United States Congress that would provide funds ($500,000) to move all Indians now living east of the Mississippi River to “Indian Territory” (Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River. The Indians would be given permanent title to this land. The money would pay the Indians for any improvements made on the land in the East where they’re now living. It would also cover the expenses of their transportation and for a year in their new homes in Indian Territory.
The U.S. Congress has decided to hold a hearing on this bill and has invited the parties below to join in a debate centered on the following question: Should all Indians living east of the Mississippi River be moved, by force if necessary, west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory? You and your partners have been chosen to represent one of the parties below at the hearing in Washington.
Questions for each group to consider in planning your presentation:
1.Do you support the Indian Removal Bill? Why or why not?
2.How will you be affected if this bill passes? If it does not pass?
3.What will you do if Congress passes this bill? What will you do if Congress does not pass this bill?
4.Collaborate with your fellow representatives to come up with 4 questions for each of the remaining 4 groups.
Your task is to argue your position and question the other parties on the matter of whether or not to move the Natives living east of the Mississippi. Read about your group below.
Indian Removal Act: Aftermath (page 19 continued)
Then answer the following questions:
1. How many Native Americans lived east of the Mississippi River when Andrew Jackson became president?
2. List FIVE Native American tribes living in the Southeast during Jackson’s presidency.
3. What “white customs” did the Cherokees adopt?
4. Why did white farmers want Native American land?
5. Which state first passed laws to remove Native Americans?
6. Explain Chief Justice John Marshall’s opinion in the Worcester v. Georgia case.
7. What was Andrew Jackson’s response to Marshall’s decision?
8. Describe the conditions of the Choctaws and Cherokee along the Trail of Tears.
9. What Native American group refused Indian Removal and what were the consequences?
10. Were Andrew Jackson’s actions justified? Why or why not?
The Annexation of Texas
The story of Texas begins with Moses Austin, a banker and business owner who dreamed of starting a U.S. colony in Spanish Texas. In 1821, Spanish officials granted Austin a huge piece of land. After Moses Austin died that same year, his son Stephen took over his father’s dream.
Stephen F. Austin arrived in Texas just as Mexico declared its independence from Spain. Now Texas was a part of Mexico. Mexican officials agreed to let Austin start his colony—under certain conditions. Austin had to choose only moral and hardworking settlers. The settlers had to promise to become Mexican citizens and to join the Catholic Church. Austin agreed to Mexico’s terms. By 1827, he had attracted 297 families—soon known as the “Old Three Hundred”— to Texas.
At the top of your page, draw a small map (about 3" x 3") of modern-day Texas and label the city of Austin on it.
1. What were Mexico's FOUR conditions that Austin and his colonists had to meet in order to form a colony there?
2. Research question: Write three interesting facts about the modern-day city of Austin, Texas.
The Americans had several complaints. They were used to governing themselves, and they resented taking orders from Mexican officials. They were unhappy that all official documents had to be in Spanish, a language most of them were unwilling to learn. In addition, many were slaveholders who were upset when Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829.
The Tejanos had their own complaints. They were unhappy that many American settlers had come to Texas without Mexico’s permission. Worse, most of these new immigrants showed little respect for Mexican culture and had no intention of becoming citizens.
The Mexican government responded by closing Texas to further U.S. immigration. The government sent troops to Texas to enforce the immigration laws.
3. What were the Americans' and Tejanos' complaints about each other?
4. Research question: How did Mexico become independent from Spain?
In 1833, Austin traveled to Mexico and presented the Texans’ demands to the new head of the Mexican government, General Antonio López de Santa Anna. The general was a power-hungry dictator who once boasted, “If I were God, I would wish to be more.” Rather than bargain with Austin, Santa Anna tossed him in jail for promoting rebellion. After Austin was released in 1835, Texans rose up in revolt. Determined to crush the rebels, Santa Anna marched north with some 6,000 troops.
5. Define the word "dictator".
6. Research question: Find three examples of modern-day dictators. Write their name, the country they lead, and how they got their power.
The Alamo: In late February 1836, a large part of Santa Anna’s army reached San Antonio, Texas. About 180 Texan volunteers, including eight Tejanos, defended the town. The Texans had taken over an old mission known as the Alamo. Among them was Davy Crockett, the famous frontiersman and former congressman from Tennessee. Sharing command with William Travis was James Bowie, a wellknown Texas “freedom fighter.”
Meanwhile, Travis sent messengers to other towns in Texas, pleading for reinforcements and vowing not to abandon the Alamo. “Victory or death!” he proclaimed. But reinforcements never came.
For 12 days, the Mexicans pounded the Alamo with cannonballs. Then, at the first light of dawn on March 6, Santa Anna gave the order to storm the fort. Desperately, the Texans tried to fight off the attackers with rifle fire.
For 90 minutes, the battle raged. Then it was all over. By day’s end, every one of the Alamo’s defenders was dead. By Santa Anna’s order, those who had survived the battle were executed on the spot.
Santa Anna described the fight for the Alamo as “but a small affair.” But his decision to kill every man at the Alamo filled Texans with rage.
On your map of modern-day Texas, label the city of San Antonio.
7. About how many people were killed at the Alamo?
8. Research question: Research the Alamo as a modern-day tourist destination. Draw a picture of the Alamo, and write three facts about the Alamo that you find interesting.
Houston’s strategy wasn’t popular, but it worked brilliantly. In April, Santa Anna caught up with Houston near the San Jacinto (san ha-SIN-to) River. Expecting the Texans to attack at dawn, the general kept his troops awake all night. When no attack came, the weary Mexicans relaxed. Santa Anna went to his tent to take a nap.
Late that afternoon, Houston’s troops staged a surprise attack. Yelling, “Remember the Alamo!” the Texans overran the Mexican camp. Santa Anna fled, but he was captured the next day. In exchange for his freedom, he ordered all his remaining troops out of Texas. The Texas War for Independence had been won, but Mexico did not fully accept the loss of its territory.
On your map of modern-day Texas, label the city of Houston.
9. What was the rallying cry of Sam Houston's troops?
10. Research question: Research the modern day city of Houston and write three facts that you find interesting.
Despite their wishes, Texas remained independent for ten years. People in the United States were divided over whether to annex Texas. Southerners were eager to add another slave state. Northerners who opposed slavery wanted to keep Texas out. Others feared that annexation would lead to war with Mexico.
The 1844 presidential campaign was influenced by the question of whether to expand U.S. territory. One of the candidates, Henry Clay, warned, “Annexation and war with Mexico are identical.” His opponent, James K. Polk, however, was a strong believer in manifest destiny. He was eager to acquire Texas. After Polk was elected, Congress voted to annex Texas. In 1845, Texas was admitted as the 28th state.
11. What were two reasons that Americans wanted Texas to remain independent?
12. Research question: Research modern-day Texas, and write about 3 historically important citizens from Texas in the last hundred years.
Lastly, write one paragraph (4-6 sentences!) summarizing this reading and explaining how Texas became part of the United States.
The Oregon Trail:
America: Story of Us "Westward" Episode
Motivations for Moving West
Hardships on the frontier
Mexican-American War Interviews
Class Discussion after interviews:
2.Who found someone with opinions different than your character’s opinions?
3.What were some of the different points of view you found on why the United States and Mexico went to war?
4.Why do you think the United States and Mexico went to war?
5.What were some results of the war?
6.What questions does this activity leave you with?
Complete the reading below. Then, check out the map to the right. This map shows the land acquired by the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. As a final task, consider the different perspectives you've gained from this module. Then answer the following questions:
In Washington, a few senators spoke up to oppose the treaty. Some of them argued that the United States had no right to any Mexican territory other than Texas. They believed that the Mexican-American War had been unjust and that the treaty was even more so. New Mexico and California together, they said, were “not worth a dollar” and should be returned to Mexico. Other senators opposed the treaty because they wanted even more land. They wanted the Mexican Cession to include a large part of northern Mexico as well. To most senators, however, the Mexican Cession was a manifest destiny dream come true.